The natural vegetation of the island includes more than 400 recorded Mediterranean species, common and rare, which is a surprise, as we are referring to a Cycladic island which is anhydrous. These include many aromatic and medicinal plants.

Besides the usual olives, figs and vines, we find prickly pear trees almost everywhere, which, although it is a foreign species, has perfectly adapted to the environment of Kimolos.

The most recognizable plants include pistacia, myrtle trees, thyme, cedrus, sand lilies, holm oaks, caper trees, millipedes, wild honeysuckle, rushes and reeds.

As far as the fauna of the island is concerned, the Monachus monachus monk seal is considered to be the most important species, while the endemic blue lizard Podarcis milensis and the endemic red oak Macrovipera schweizeri (formerly known as Vipera lebetina), which is now considered a threatened species, is still present.

Additionally, Kimolos can see a number of endemic birds, such as hawks, crucifers, partridges, gulls, wild pigeons, sturgeons, etc., as well as migratory species such as herons, swans, marshmallows, amphibians, scaffolds,

Last but not least, the sea is inhabited by sea urchins, pines, corals, lobsters, many kinds of fish, and sea turtles.